A saw has two main parts, the blade and the handle or frame.
There are many types of saws; they can have teeth patterns for rip sawing, crosscut sawing or both - universal teeth pattern.
The teeth cuts the wood, brakes the shavings loose and carries them out of the saw kerfs. Teeth are set, bent sideways alternately right and left, so that they cut a kerf slightly wider than the thickness of the blade.
Japanese saws cut on the pull, have thinner blades and less set than the European saws. This makes them easier to use and gives a narrower kerf.